The term of mountaineering is so related to mountain climbing for sport. But the form of mountaineering is not just hiking. Ski mountaineering can also be classified as mountaineering. At first, mountaineering began to climb the unclimbed big mountain and reach the highest point of the mountain. And now, it has several branches with the different aspects and consists on 3 areas such as snow craft, rock craft and skiing. But whatever the branch, all of them require athletic ability, experience and technical knowledge.
The History of Mountaineering
Actually, information about the first mountaineering is still unknown. But for the recorded one, Francesco De Marchi and Francesco De Domenico seems to be the first mountaineering that people know. They reach the highest peak of Apennine Mountains in 1573. In 1741, Richard Pococke and William Windham also made the historic visit to Charmonix. Since then, there are more records for mountain climbing around the world.
The term of shelter relates to the harbor. As the result of the unpredictable weather, shelter helps the climbers to take a rest and to take cover from the danger. Climbers may use the different form of shelters depend on the condition and the situation. Some of them are including base camp, hut, bivouac and tent. Sometimes, they also use snow cave for this.
Mountain climbing is one of the dangerous activities in the world. To reach the peak of the mountain, climbers risking their life. Loss of life is not something uncommon. The dangers of mountaineering can be classified into 2 categories, objective hazards and subjective hazards. Objective hazards exist without any regard of the climbers. The examples of this category are rock fall and inclement weather. And for the subjective hazard, it relates to the factors that introduced by the climbers. The other hazards that can be experienced by climbers are including falling ice, avalanches, ice slops, snow slops, crevasses, altitude, solar radiation and volcanic activity.
Mountaineering is so risky. Every year, there are hundreds up to thousands climbers die. One of the most dangerous hazards is avalanches. In Alps alone, there are about 120 up to 150 people die every year. The major victims is not just coming from the experienced climbers but also ski instructors. In mountaineering, experience helps people to survive for a longer time. But this is not a guarantee. For this, be careful and be aware with the conditions around is a must.
The Mountaineering Styles
Mountaineering styles can be classified into 2 styles, expedition style and alpine style. Between those styles, there are several differences such as the group size, time scale and the other ones. In the expedition style, climbers use multiple trips to carry up supplies to the higher camps. But in the alpine style, climbers climb a route once only. In here, they do not need to climb between camps with supplies continually. The group scale of expedition style is also bigger. This is why it takes the higher capital expenditure too. Beside it, expedition style also takes a longer time scale than the alpine style.